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2017高考英语知识点总结:形容词和副词
2016-8-19 14:13 |  发布人: yyxinxin |  阅读: 3686 | 
  2017高考复习即将开始,为了帮助同学们更好的进行复习,下面是21世纪教育网小编为大家整理的2017高考英语知识点总结:形容词和副词,针对相关知识点进行精讲、精练,非常适合各位高三考生复习使用,欢迎查看!
  为了让同学们更好的理解各个知识点,21世纪教育网最新推出了2017高中英语必考知识点教学视频,各个考点,逐一突破,点击以下图片或文字链接进行观看!


        2017高考英语知识点总结:形容词和副词
  形容词、副词是每年高考必考点之一,近几年语境综合化程度越来越高,难度加大。高考热点有:形容词、副词词义辨析;原级、比较级、最高级的使用;倍数的表达方法;比较等级的修饰语;多个形容词的排列顺序;常见形容词、副词的惯用法等。
  关于形容词与副词这一考点,主要考查以下几个方面:
  1.考查形容词和副词的基本用法
  形容词在句中一般作定语、表语、补语,而副词在句中主要作状语。
  2.考查形容词作定语的后置规律
  形容词作定语一般位于所修饰的名词前,但下列三种情况形容词要后置:①形容词短语作定语时;②表语形容词作定语时;③修饰复合不定代词时。
  3.考查多个形容词作定语的排序
  多个形容词修饰名词时,其排序规律是:(限定词+程度副词+) 描绘+大小(长短、高低)+形状+年龄(新旧)+颜色+国籍或产地+物质材料+类别或用途+名词。
  4.考查副词在句中的位置规律
  副词修饰形容词或其它副词时,一般位于被修饰词的前面,但enough却要放在被修饰的形容词或副词的后面。
  5.考查–ed形容词和-ing形容词的区别
  -ed形容词,通常说明人,意为“(某人)感到……”;-ing形容词通常说明事物,意为“(某事物)令人……”或“令人……的(事物)”。
  6.考查两种不同形式的副词的用法差异
  即考查与形容词同形的副词与形容词后加ly构成的副词的区别。
  7.考查形容词和副词的比较等级。
  8.考查比较等级的修饰语。
  考点1: 在具体的语境中辨析形容词与副词的语义
  从复现的频率来看,此点是高考对形容词、副词考查的第一大热点。解答此类题关键是要分析具体的语境,结合基本词义、搭配等来选择正确的答案。
  经过统计,常见常考的形容词和副词有(按频度排列):even; interested; interesting; yet; hardly; just; therefore; though; too; very; common; effective; either; ever; fair; however; less; more; nearly; only; purposefully; rather; still; such; surprised; surprising
  还有以下形容词和副词应当熟悉和掌握: a good many; a number of; acceptable; accidentally; actively; adequately; already; another; anxious; anyway; ashamed; attentively; bad; badly; besides; better; but; careful; changeable; cheap; comfortable; convenient; eagerly; easy; encouraging; enha-ncing; equal; even though; eventually; fairly; far; fewer; following; formally; friendly; gen-erously; gradually; heavily; historic; hopefully; immediately; inaccessible; individual; inevit-able; initial; instead; invisible; largely; never; next; no; normal; nowadays; obviously; ordin-ary; other; otherwise; patient; plenty of; prac-tical; promoting; proper; quickly; readily; reasonable; remote; seldom; seriously; short; so; stimulating; traditional; unavailable; unav-oidable; unfavorable; unfortunately; usual; va-rious; weak; well
  考点2:考查形容词、副词的比较级、最高级及前面的修饰语
  【备考清单】
  1) 比较级、最高级的选用及应用范围
  比较级、最高级常用于表示两者或多者间的比较。复习中须注意如下句型的用法:
  ① as + 原级adj. / adv. + as表示“和……一样”及not as / so + 原级adj. / adv. + as表示“不如……”。例如:
  (94全国) John plays football as well as, if not better than, David.
  The piano in the other shop will be cheaper, but not as good.
  ② as + 原级adj. + a(n) + n. + as表示“跟……一样”。例如:
  (2001全国) It’s generally believed that teaching is as much an art as it is a science.
  (2003北京) Our neighbour has as big a house as ours.
  ③ 比较级 + than表“比……更”及less ... than表示“不如……”。例如:
  This year they have produced less grain than they did last year.
  This road is wider than that one.
  ④ the + 比较级, the + 比较级表示“越……,就越……”。例如:
  (93上海) It’s believed that the harder you work, the better result you’ll get.
  ⑤ the +比较级+ of the + 名词 / 代词表示两者中“较……的”。例如:
  Who is the younger of the two boys?
  ⑥比较级 + 比较级(越来越……)。___ 例如:
  Our country is getting stronger and stronger.
  Things became worse and worse from then on.
  ⑦用the last表示“最不可能的”、“最不适合的”、“最不希望的”等。例如:
  The last thing I want to do is to offend you.我最不愿意做的就是惹你生气。
  He is the last man I want to see.他是我最不希望见的人。
  2) 形容词、副词原级、比较级、最高级前的程度状语
  ① 注意一些形容词或副词前的特定修饰语。例如:
  (2004广东) Sometimes it was a bit boring to work there because there wasn’t always that much to do. (那样多)
  I quite like it. They are quite different / wrong.
  quite possible / impossible
  My hometown is much changed.
  much to my surprise(很让我吃惊)
  be well worth doing (很值得做)
  ② 比较级前常可用still, even, much, far, a lot / little / few / bit, rather, any, a great deal, so far, by far, no等词修饰。(注意more不用于修饰比较级)。例如:
  (94全国) If there were no examinations, we should have a much happier time.
  (2000上海) You’re standing too near the cinema. Can you move a bit farther?
  This is by far the better.
  ③ 最高级可用序数词、much、 by far、 nearly、 almost等词修饰。例如:
  Africa is the second largest continent.
  The Pacific is by far the largest ocean.
  I like this film the very best / much the best.
  考点3:形容词作表语,形容词、副词作后置定语
  【备考清单】
  1) 形容词用于系动词后作表语
  在最近几年高考试题中系动词加形容词作表语的情况出现过很多次。高考对此点的考查集中于区别到底是系动词还是一般动词并选择合适的形容词,而不是副词作表语。常见的联系动词有如下三类:
  表示感觉的系动词:sound, look, taste, appear, smell, feel, seem等
  表示变化的系动词:become, fall, get, turn, grow, make, come, go等
  表示状态存在的系动词:remain, keep, stay, continue, prove, lie, stand等。例如:
  2) 形容词、副词作后置定语
  【备考清单】
  常见的几种修饰语后置的情况有: ①形容词修饰something, nothing, anything, everything等不定代词时要后置。②present作“出席的”时只作后置定语。③表语形容词如alive, asleep, awake, alone等只能作后置定语。④副词修饰动词时, 放在动词之后。修饰形容词或副词时, 放在被修饰词之前。enough修饰形容词、副词时要后置,修饰名词时可放在名词的前后。形容词短语修饰名词作主语时要后置。用and或or连接的形容词作定语时要后置, 起强调作用。表数量的词作定语时要后置。副词修饰形容词的特殊词序, “so, as, how, too + 形容词 + 单数可数名词”。
  考点4:倍数表达法
  【备考清单】
  三种常见倍数表达法:
  1) 倍数 + as + 原级形容词 + as ...。例如:
  This road is three times as long as that one.
  2) 倍数 + the size / length / width / depth / height of ...。例如:
  The river is five times the width of that one.
  3) 倍数 + 比较级 + than + 被比较对象。例如:
  The sun is a million times larger than the earth.
  考点5: 多个形容词作定语时的排序问题及语序不同意义不同的词组
  【备考清单】
  1) 多个形容词作定语时的排序问题
  多个形容词作定语时的排序一般遵从如下规律:
  如果两个以上的形容词修饰一个名词时,与被修饰的名词关系较密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的密切程度差不多,则音节少的形容词在前,音节多的在后。例如:a small wonderful gift
  常用的顺序为:
  限定词+描绘性形容词(beautiful)+大小、长短、高低等形容性形容词+(large, long, high)+新旧(old)+颜色(red)+产地(Chinese)+材料(wood)+用途(writing)+被修饰名词(desk)
  记住以上规则是必要的,但还应多阅读、多体会,增强语感是关键。例如:
  all these last few days 最近的这些日子
  some beautiful little red flowers 一些美丽的小红花
  a high red brick wall 一堵高高的红砖墙
  a beautiful white Japanese military jeep 一辆漂亮的白色日本军用吉普车
  其中限定词的排列顺序为:
  all / both / half / double / 倍数词 / 分数词 + 冠词 / 指示代词 / 物主代词 / 名词所有格 / some / any / no / every / each +基数词 / 序数词 / little / few / last / next / other / another / more,形容词的排列顺序为:大小、长短、高低、新旧、颜色、产地、材料、用途、类别等。
  尽管以上给出了排序的基本规律,但由于所涉及的词太多,想要记清楚确实有难度。下面给出四句口诀辅助记忆:
  所有这些词, 顺序往后数;
  美小圆旧黄,法国木书房。
  上面口诀中前两句主要用于解决排在最前边的多个限定词之间的顺序。它可以应用于all (所有) these (这些) last (顺序) few (数量) days短语中。这个短语基本上可以体现多个限定词之间的先后顺序。口诀后两句可对应一句话“This is a charming small round old yellow French wood reading room.”其中多个形容词之间的先后顺序基本上可以在这一句中得以体现,而且汉语歌诀的形式将使记忆更形象、更深刻。利用以上歌诀时最好是“抓两头”,即牢记排在最前边的限定词及排在最后边的形容词,如产地、材料、用途等,则能轻松突破此难点。
  考点6: 考查形容词与副词区别, 易混词带有-ly的形容词、副词及复合形容词
  【备考清单】
  1) 注意如下有无-ly的形容词和副词的意义区别:
  wide / high / deep(具体的意义)宽 / 高 / 深 widely / highly / deeply(抽象意义)广泛地 / 高度地 / 深深地
  most十分、非常 / 最多(大)的
  mostly主要地、绝大多数地、多半
  close靠近地
  closely密切地、仔细地
  late迟的,迟到的
  lately最近、近来
  direct直接(主要用于谈论路程和时间,和straight意思相同) directly直率地、立即
  2) 注意合成形容词本质上是一个形容词,其合成部份中的名词不能变为复数形式。例如:
  He wrote a two-thousand-word report.
  His uncle is 6 feet tall. He is a forty-year old man.
  3) “名词+ ly”构成的是形容词,而不是副词。
  这类形容词有friendly, lovely, weekly, monthly, daily等
  4) 有些词既可以作形容词也可以作副词。例如:
  He got up late, so he was late for school again.
  Can you see that straight road? Go straight along this road, you’ll find the supermarket at the end.
  This maths problem was hard. I thought hard and got the answer at last.
  【精选试题】 名校模拟题及其答案
  1. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard _____ voice.
  A. a better B. a best C. the better D. the best
  2. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is _____ known for his plays.
  A. the best B. more C. better D. the most
  3. The plane flew smoothly ______ in the sky and people spoke ______ of the experienced pilot.
  A. high;high B. highly;highly C. high;highly D. highly;high
  4. —— What do you think of the concert?—— Oh, it was______success.
  A. a very B. quite a C .so D. really
  5. I haven’t seen______ this since I collected stamps.
  A. as old a stamp as B. so an old stamp as
  C. stamp as old as D. as an old stamp a
  6.The task is too much for me, so I can’t carry on ______any longer. I must get some help.
  A. singly B.simply C.alone D.lonely
  7. Have your working conditions improved?
  ---No, ______than before, I’m afraid.
  A. no better B.a little batter C.not worse D.no worse
  8. To their great relief, the missing child returned home, ______, after an absence of two weeks.
  A.felt tired and sound B.tiring and soundly
  C.feeling tired but soundly D.tired but sound
  9. We must keep our room clean, for dirt and disease go______, you know.
  A.hand in hand B.step by step C.from time ti time D.one zfter another
  10. How are you getting on with your classates?
  ——______. I’ve got to know them all.
  A. Far better B.Much pleased C.Very comfortable D.Very good
  11. It is always difficult being in a foreign country, __________if you don’t speak the language.
  A.extremely B.naturally C.basically D.especially
  12. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science.
  A.an art much as B.much an art as C.as an art much as D.as much an art as
  13. It is re ported that the United States uses _____ energy as the whole of Europe.
  A. as twice B. twice much C. twice much as D. twice as much
  14. John Smith, a successful businessman, has a ______car.
  A. large German white B. large white German
  C. white large German D. German large white
  15. This _____girl is Linda’s cousin.
  A. pretty little Spanish B. Spanish little pretty
  C. Spanish pretty little D. little pretty Spanish
  16. Mr. Smith owns _____collection of coins than anyone else I have ever met.
  A. larger B. a larger C. the larger D. a large
  17.—Did you enjoy yourself at the party?
  —Yes. I’ve never been to ______one before.
  A. a more excited B. the most excited C. a more exciting D. the most exciting
  18.—Are you going to have a holiday this year?
  —I'd love to. I can't wait to leave this place ______.
  A. off B. out C. behind D. over
  19. There were a lot of people standing at the door and the small girl couldn’t get _______
  A. between B. through C. across D. beyond
  20. I thought she was famous, but none of my friends have ______heard of her.
  A. even B. ever C. just D. never
  21. (2008年天津市十二区县重点学校高三毕业班联考(一),英语,33)——You don’t go to that supermarket quite often, do you?
  —— No, I only go there ______ because it’s too far away from my house.
  A. eventually B. constantly C. occasionally D. frequently
  22. (2008年天津市十二区县重点学校高三毕业班联考(二),英语,3)My daughter cares more for new clothes than anything else in the world, so she is very _______ about what she wears.
  A. special B. strict C. especial D. particular
  23.(2009年东北三省三校第一次联合模拟考试英语试题,英语,24)Well, that’s just the deal. ______ price will be out of my reach.
  A. The higher B. A higher C. The highest D. A highest
  24. (唐山市2008—2009学年度高三年级第一次模拟考试,英语,20)Much to my surprise, the eight-year-old boy fixed my computer within ten minutes.
  A.skillfully B.immediately C.normally D.nervously
  25.(银川一中2009届高三年级第一次模拟考试,英语,33)Attention, coffee lovers! We have for you, the best coffee machine _____ invented.
  A. ever B. already C. even D. nowadays
  26.(2008学年绍兴一中第一次高考模拟试卷,英语,36)It is ______ to spend money in preventing illnesses by promoting healthy living rather than spending it trying to make people ______ after they are ill.
  A. good; good B. well; better C. better; better D. better; good
  27.(2008—2009学年度南昌市高三第一次模拟测试卷,英语,31)The increase of the number of the students makes the limited computers not ______ to each student.
  A.available B.affordable C.helpful D.acceptable
  28. (湖北省黄冈中学2009届高三第一次模拟考试,英语,28)Food safety is ________ important, so the government spares no efforts to prevent food pollution.
  A.strongly B. reasonably C.highly D. naturally
  39.(四川省资阳市2009届高三上学期第一次模拟考试, 英语,8)10,000 dollars is a large sum of money,but it is still ______than we need for a new house
  A.very few B.very little C.far fewer D.far less
  30. (山东省莒南一中2008—2009学年度高三第一学期学业水平阶段性测评,英语,22)
  Wouldn’t it be for you to pick me up at four o’clock and take me to the airport.
  A.free B.vacant C.handy D.convenient
  答案与解析
  1. 【解析】A容易误选D,认为最高级前要用定冠词。其实此题最佳答案为A,该句可视为…I have never heard a better voice than her voice 之省略,全句句意为“她唱得多好啊!我从未听过她这么好的声音”。
  2. 【解析】C此题首先不宜选B或D,因为 well known 的比较级和最高级通常是 better known和best known,有时也可以是 more well known 和 most well known,但通常不能是 more known 和 most known。至于是选A还是C,这就要看语境。由于句中涉及的只有 stories 和 plays 两个对象,故应选比较级。
  3. 【解析】C high in the sky 是个形容词短语,意为“高高地在天上”。同时,speak highly of 是个词组,表示“高度赞扬”的意思。
  4. 【解析】B quite a , quite some用以指人或物不寻常,如We had quite a party.(我们的聚会不一般。)It must be quite some car.(那辆车可不比寻常。)
  5. 【解析】A表示“象这么旧的邮票”可用以 下形式表达:as old a stamp as this; a stamp as old as this; 否定句中前一个as可用so。
  6.【解析】C句意:这项任务对我来说太重了,我再也不能单独自己做了,我必须找个助手。Singly各自的,一个一个地;simply简单的,仅仅,只不过;alone独立,单独;lonely孤独的,寂寞的。
  7. 【解析】A你们的工作条件改善了吗?---没有,和以前一样(不好)。no+比较级+ than 表示“两者同样不……的意思”。
  8. 【解析】D句意:使他们宽慰的是,丢失的孩子两周后又重返家园,虽然很疲惫但很健康。形容词作状语表示伴随或结果,不表示动作的方式。
  9. 【解析】A句意:我们必须保持室内卫生,你知道脏乱与疾病是分不开的。hand in hand---happenning together and closely connected密切相关的,同时发生的。本句还可说成:Dirt goes hand in hand with disease.
  10. 【解析】A句意:——你和你们班的同学相处的如何?——好多了,我和他们都认识了。答语为省略句,补全后应为:I’m getting on far better with my classmates.
  11. 【解析】D 本题考查副词的词义辨析。注意掌握词语的准确含义,结合语境进行分析。A项意为“极端地”;B项意为“自然地”;C项“基本上”;D项“尤其,特别地”。根据句意“如果你不会讲(它的)语言,在国外你就总会困难重重”可知答案。
  12.【解析】D本题可从考查形容词的同级比较点入手。在同级比较as…as句式中,如果as后面的形容词作定语且其所修饰的名词前有不定冠词时,该冠词须置于形容词之后,即形成“as + 形容词+a / an + 单数可数名词 + as”结构。这道题在名词专题中也有解析,不同的是观察视角不同,应注意培养发散思维。
  13.【解析】D表示倍数的twice(两倍)要放在第一个as前,即“倍数+as+形容词(+名词)+as”。故选D。
  14.【解析】B large是“大小”,German是“产地”,white是“颜色”;其排列顺序应当是“大小+颜色+产地”。故选B。
  15. 【解析】A pretty是描绘性形容词,little是表示大小的形容词,Spanish是表示国籍的形容词,所以,它们的排序是pretty little Spanish。
  16.【解析】B 由than可知要用比较级,排除选项D;又因collection(收藏品)是可数名词,此处为单数又不是特指,要用不定冠词a。
  17.【解析】C由yes可知,“我从未参加过(比这个晚会)更令人兴奋的一场晚会了。”指晚会是“令人兴奋的”,排除选项A和B;由语境可知是隐含式比较级:以往经历过的任何一次与这一次晚会相比,排除D。
  18.【解析】C考查副词。leave…behind是固定搭配。
  19. 【解析】B get through (=pass)中的through可以是副词,表示“通过”。
  20.【解析】B考查副词用法。因为ever用于否定语、疑问句或条件句中,表示“在任何时候(=at any time)”,即not…ever = never从不,从来没有。
  21. 【解析】C句意:---你不经常去超市,是吗?---不经常去,我只是偶尔去,因为超市离我们家太远。Occasionally---sometimes, but not regulary and not often偶尔;eventually ---at last, in the end最后,终于;constantly ---all the time, or very often不断地,经常地;frequently频繁地,经常地。
  22. 【解析】D special特殊的;strict严厉的;especial专门的;be particular about sth对……很挑剔;符合题意。这句话的意思是:我的女儿对新衣服和一切新事物都很关心,因此她对穿着很挑剔。
  23.【解析】B 句意:好了,成交了,再高了就超出了我的支付能力了。根据题意,并不是进行比较,因此不用比较级,排除A 和C,而是表示“再”,冠词a+比较级表示此意。
  24.【解析】A skillfully技巧熟练地,符合题意。由Much to my surpris 可推测出 the eight-year-old boy应该技巧熟练。Immediately立即的;normally正常的;nervously紧张的。
  25. 【解析】A句意强调“我们今天准备的是曾经最好的” ever 曾经;already 已经;even 甚至;nowadays 如今;后三项不符合题意。
  26.【解析】C有than 可知前面一个空应用比较级,因此排除AB, 根据题意第二个空也应用比较级,是生病前后病人身体健康状况的比较。
  27.【解析】A available可以得到的, 可达到的, 可用的;affordable买得起的;helpful 有帮助的;acceptable可以接受的;根据句意,A项符合题意。
  28.【解析】C strongly强壮地,强烈的;reasonably合情合理的;highly 高度地, 很好, 非常;naturally自然的;句意是食品安全非常重要,因此政府不遗余力预防食物污染。
  39.【解析】D由 than 可知应用比较级,排除AB,数量多少应用 little 比较级为 less.
  30.【解析】D free自由的,空闲的;vacant空缺的,空白的;handy便于使用的, 便利的, 可携带的, 轻便的;convenient方便的,D项符合题意。

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